Ergonomic injuries

Ergonomic Injuries

1) What are ergonomic injuries and how are they caused?

Most people these days have desk jobs that require them to be seated at their desks for 8-10 hours straight. People often fail to realize how much havoc a simple desk job can create in their life. People tend to disregard a lot of simple symptoms by confusing them with symptoms of other conditions and fail to realize that they could be caused by seemingly harmless factors like sitting on a chair for prolonged hours. A lot of health conditions have been said to be caused because of sitting for prolonged hours. Ergonomic injuries affect the muscles, spinal disc, nerves, ligaments, joints etc. Hinged back, back pain, pain in the wrist, stiff neck and shoulder aches are a few of the most common health issues seen due to poor seating posture and continued sitting.

The most commonly suffered ergonomic injuries are;

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Neurological conditions in children

Common neurological problems in children

The brain is one of the most important and delicate organs in the human body. Neurological problems are those issues caused by a dysfunction of the brain or nervous system and result in psychological or physical symptoms depending on the area of the brain involved, leading to disorders.

The human brain begins developing when the child is in the womb and continues through infancy until adolescence. The brain cells are mostly formed before birth, although the nerve connections do not develop until later. Neurological disorders have a wide spectrum and can have various causes, complications, symptoms, and results. All neurological conditions involve the nervous system which comprises of the brain and the spine. The nervous system controls everything in the human body including movement, vision and hearing abilities. Symptoms and outcomes depend on the area of the brain that has been damaged. (more…)

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Breast cancer early detection

Ways to detect Breast Cancer

Breast cancer is a form of cancer that develops from the breast tissue. It is mostly found in women, however, can be diagnosed in men too.

Know symptoms and signs of breast cancer include:

  • Nipple discharge or retraction of the nipple
  • Enlargement of one breast, dimpling of the breast surface
  • An “orange peel” texture to the skin
  • Unintentional weight loss and bone pain
  • Enlarged lymph nodes in the armpit
  • Visible veins on the breast.

The risk factors for developing breast cancer include obesity due to a lack of physical exercise, drinking alcohol, hormone replacement, therapy during menopause, early age at first menstruation, having children late or not at all and family history.

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Healthy Joints For a Healthy Living

A joint also called an articulation, is any place where adjacent bones come together (articulate with each other) to form a connection.  The joint allows the bones to move freely but within controlled limits.

There are various types of joints in the body but among them, the synovial joints are the most common joint.

A key structural characteristic for a synovial joint is its joint cavity. This fluid-filled space is the site at which the articulating surfaces of the bones come into contact with each other. This gives the bones of a synovial joint the ability to move smoothly against each other, allowing for increased joint mobility.

Some joints, such as the knee, elbow, and shoulder, are self-lubricating, almost frictionless, and are able to withstand compression and maintain heavy loads while still executing smooth and precise movements. Other joints such as sutures between the bones of the skull permit very little movement (only during birth) in order to protect the brain and the sense organs.

In a joint, bones do not directly come into contact with each other. They are cushioned by cartilage that lines your joints (articular cartilage), synovial membranes around the joint and a lubricating fluid inside your joints (synovial fluid).

Muscles provide the force and strength to move the body. Coordination is directed by the brain but is affected by changes in the muscles and joints. Changes in the muscles, joints, and bones affect the posture and walk, and lead to weakness and slowed movement.

AGING CHANGES ON JOINTS AND MUSCLES

From about age 30, the density of bones begins to diminish in men and women. This loss of bone density accelerates in women after menopause. As a result, bones become more fragile and are more likely to break, especially in old age.

As people age, their joints are affected by changes in cartilage and in connective tissue. The cartilage inside a joint becomes thinner, and components of the cartilage (the proteoglycans—substances that help provide the cartilage’s resilience) become altered, which may make the joint less resilient and more susceptible to damage. Thus, in some people, the surfaces of the joint do not slide as well over each other as they used to. This process may lead to osteoarthritis or osteoarthrosis. Additionally, joints become stiffer because the connective tissue within ligaments and tendons becomes more rigid and brittle. This change also limits the range of motion of joints.

Loss of muscle (sarcopenia) is a process that starts around age 30 and progresses throughout life. In this process, the amount of muscle tissue and the number and size of muscle fibres gradually decrease. The result of sarcopenia is a gradual loss of muscle mass and muscle strength. This mild loss of muscle strength places increased stress on certain joints (such as the knees) and may predispose a person to arthritis or falling.

Symptoms of osteoarthritis can include:

  • Painstiffnessa grating or grinding sensation (crepitus) when the joint movesswelling (either hard or soft)not being able to use the affected

Joint normally, which can make it difficult to do certain activities

(For example climbing stairs).

PREVENTION

Exercise is one of the best ways to slow or prevent problems with the muscles, joints, and bones. A moderate exercise program can help you maintain strength, balance, and flexibility. Exercise helps the bones stay strong.

A Harvard Alumni Study has published a report that a caloric expenditure of >2000 kcal/day associated with 25% reduction in mortality, they even suggested that physical activity levels must be maintained THROUGHOUT life

Research shows that:

  • Exercise can make bones stronger and help slow the rate of bone loss.
  • Older people can increase muscle mass and strength through muscle-strengthening activities.
  • Balance and coordination exercises, such as tai chi, can help reduce the risk of falls.
  • Physical activity in later life may delay the progression of osteoporosis as it slows down the rate at which bone mineral density is reduced.
  • Weight-bearing exercise, such as walking or weight training, is the best type of exercise for maintenance of bone mass. There is a suggestion that twisting or rotational movements, where the muscle attachments pull on the bone, are also beneficial.
  • Older people who exercise in water (which is not weight bearing) may still experience increases in bone and muscle mass compared to sedentary older people.

Aerobic exercise is any exercise that increases your pulse rate and makes you short of breath (for example a brisk walk, swimming or using an exercise bike). Regular aerobic exercise should help you sleep better, is good for your general health and well-being, and can also reduce pain by raising the levels of pain-relieving hormones called endorphins.

  • Stretching is another excellent way to help maintain joint flexibility.

See your doctor before you start any new physical activity program. If you haven’t exercised for a long time, are elderly or have a chronic disease (such as arthritis), your doctor, physiotherapist or exercise physiologist can help tailor an appropriate and safe exercise program for you.

To summarize

Older adults are the fastest-growing segment of the population

  • As the older adult population increases in number, there is considerable impact on health care and economic aspects of society
  • Observational studies suggest that physical activity may increase the quantity and quality of life

It’s never too late to start living an active lifestyle and enjoying the benefits.

Dr. Ashwin Narasimhaprasad 

Specialist in Orthopaedics  

Aster Clinic, Muteena (DMPC)

Dr. Ashwin - Muteena

http://asterclinic.ae/doctor/dr-ashwin-narasimhaprasad/

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Paediatric Influenza Infections

Viral flu or Influenza is one of the most common and significant causes of respiratory infections worldwide. As many as 1 in 3 children, seeking treatment for flu – like illnesses, at the peak of flu season ( December to February), are at the risk of complications like pneumonia and bronchitis.

 

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

High fever, chills, myalgia, headache, fatigue, nasal congestion, non-productive cough, conjunctivitis and sometimes diarrhoea.

 

MODE OF SPREAD

The Influenza virus spreads through coughing, sneezing or touching objects used by infected person.eg: Handkerchief or towels

 

DIAGNOSIS

Mostly clinical, based on examination findings. In some cases, your Paediatrician may recommend a complete blood count or a nasal swab test to confirm it.

 

TREATMENT

It is mostly supportive, in the form of

  • Acetaminophen for fever
  • Expectorants
  • Steam Inhalation
  • Saline nebulization
  • Oral or IV Fluids, if oral intake is reduced.
  • Anti-viral therapy with Oseltamivir, in severe cases
  • Antibiotics – don’t have a role in most cases.

 

PREVENTION

Regular handwashing and personal hygiene help prevent infections from spreading. It is difficult though to prevent infections from spreading amongst family members and in school.

The flu vaccine can help reduce or prevent viral influenza. It can be given to children over 6 months of age. It is effective for up to 1 year after vaccination. It is recommended for children with recurrent viral respiratory infections, especially when they start school or daycare.

It is an inactivated vaccine and may cause fever up to 2 days after vaccination. It is to be avoided for children with an egg allergy.

 

Dr.Brindha BalaSubramanian

Specialist Paediatrician & Neonatologist 

Aster Clinic, Al Muteena (DMPC)

Dr.-Brinda-60x60

 

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